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The Economist reports about cash-on-delivery schemes in development aid. Payments are made only after jointly agreed objectives have been met. The means to achieve those goals are left for the recipient country to choose—management by objectives.
True, potentially corrupt or negligent country officials can be monitored less tightly than with other schemes. But evidence discussed in the article suggests that such monitoring might not be very fruitful anyway. Moreover, sufficiently well specified objectives should in principle help to curb moral hazard and thus, reap the benefits of subsidiarity.